Домой Инструкции Что такое Gas в сети Ethereum и его предназначение

Что такое Gas в сети Ethereum и его предназначение

4328
90
ПОДЕЛИТЬСЯ

Уверен, вы не раз при переводе токенов/ETH задавались вопросом “Что такое этот Gas?”. В этой статье мы с вами обсудим главные вопросы, касающиеся “газа”.

В отличие от Биткоина, где все довольно просто — достаточно поставить размер комиссии и ждать, пока перевод пройдет, на Ethereum все работает несколько иначе. Хотя базовый принцип остаётся неизменным, чем больше денег вы готовы отдать за комиссию, тем быстрее пройдет транзакция. Но если Bitcoin создавался в первую очередь, в качестве альтернативы фиатной (традиционной) валюте, то у Ethereum задачи более глобальные, и создавалась эта платформа для исполнения различных программ или смарт-контрактов.

Есть три основные операции, которые можно совершать на блокчейне Эфириума:

  1. Переводить эфир на другие адреса;
  2. Исполнять смарт-контракты;
  3. Создавать смарт-контракты.

Вот мы и добрались до самого главного. Для того, чтобы совершать эти операции на платформе Эфириум, вам нужно будет заплатить комиссию и единицей оплаты любой комиссии служит Gas. Говоря простым языком, за любую операцию в Эфириуме вам придется платить Газом. Проводите сложную операцию — нужно больше газа, на простую понадобится меньше. Таким образом, сеть гарантирует, что никто не будет выполнять бесполезные действия и использовать неэффективный код.

На сайте https://etherscan.io вы можете найти практически любую транзакцию в сети Эфириум. Пример транзакции, на которую ушло 22 251 Газа (строчка Gas Used By Txn): https://etherscan.io/tx/0x9b896be007157ca7c7a19880811c1add43c8f05323ecb08ec1befdb168dd4b09

Что такое Gas Limit?

Gas Limit — это максимальное количество Газа, которое может у вас списаться при проведении той или иной транзакции. Этот лимит придуман для того, чтобы в результате какой-нибудь ошибки, которая запустит большой цикл операций, у вас не списалась крупная сумма в качестве комиссии. При выставлении лимита Газа важно понимать несколько вещей:

  1. К примеру, вы ставите лимит Газа 50 000, а на операцию вам нужно было 25 000, в этом случае необходимое количество Газа (25к) не превышает лимит(50к), а значит, все ОК — транзакция попадет в блок и будет выполнена, а оставшиеся 25 000 Газа вернутся вам на кошелек, в виде ETH. Но если на операцию вам нужно было 55 000, то все ваши 50 000 Газа потратятся, но валидацию транзакция не пройдет и вы останетесь «с носом» (обычно выбивает ошибку “out of gas”).
  2. Обычно, при выборе токенов на перевод, лимит выставляется автоматически. Но если он остаётся неизменным, то узнавайте у разработчиков смарт-контрактов, при участии в ICO и других операциях, какой Gas limit вам ставить.
  3. Помните, стандартный лимит Газа для перевода ETH на другой адрес — 21 000 Gas. То есть, если вы планируете просто переводить эфир на различные адреса, не связываясь со смарт-контрактами, то для вас важно запомнить Gas Limit = 21 000.

Что такое Gas Price?

Эфир делится на различные доли в таком соотношении:

1 ETH = 1 000 finney  (“финни”)  = 1 000 000 szabo (“сабо”) = 1 000 000 000 gwei (“джи-вэи”) =1 000 000 000 000 000 000 wei (“вэи”)

Кстати, названия долей не случайны, это фамилии людей, которые сыграли немалую роль в развитии криптовалют.

Так вот, Gas Price или Цена Газа — это та цена, которую вы готовы заплатить за одну единицу Газа. Каждый сам определяет какую цену за Gas он готов заплатить. В данный момент 1 Gas =  20 Gwei, что при стандартной отправке эфира будет 21 000*0,00000002 = 0,00042 ETH ($0.364). Согласитесь, в принципе сумма приемлемая, но возникает вопрос, а можно ли поставить меньше и дойдет ли транзакция в этом случае. Чтобы ответить на этот вопрос, воспользуемся сервисом: ethgasstation.info

В таблице на сайте очень много цифр и букв, но нам нужны только два показателя:

  • Gas Price, мы регулируем его ползунком. Он измеряется в единицах — Gwei;
  • Gas Used — количество Gas, необходимое для выполнения операции.

На скрине выше мы поставили Gas Price в 20 Gwei. И Gas Used в 21 000. Время перевода будет меньше минуты (смотрите Avg Time (min)), а стоимость комиссии в долларовом эквиваленте — $0.364.

Теперь, поставив цену Газа в 2 Gwei, что в 10 раз меньше за стандартное значение, мы видим, что приблизительное время перевода будет 6 минут (на практике переводится за ~3 минуты):

Это значит, что заплатив комиссию в 10 раз меньше ($0.036) вы будете ожидать подтверждения чуть больше 4 минут.

Конечно, это не точные данные, периодически время отправки меняется, в зависимости от загруженности сети Ethereum, но мне до сих пор не понятно, зачем платить за Gas по 20-60 Gwei, если даже при 2-5 оно отправляется не настолько медленно?

Мы с вами разобрались, что такое Gas и с чем его “едят”. Теперь вы знаете как отправлять с меньшей комиссией.

90 КОММЕНТАРИИ

  1. А где этот газ брать? Или он переводится из эфира?

  2. Все верно, Юрий. Газа как такового нет, это просто понятие, чтобы удобнее подсчитывать цену транзакций. Кстати, если сравнит это с платформой Neo, то у них на ряду самим Нео токеном, как раз таки имеется отдельная монета, которая так и называется — Gas.

  3. ВСЕГО ОДНА КАПСУЛА В ДЕНЬ
    и ты будешь заниматься сексом ежедневно по 2-3 часа!
    В любом возрасте и без побочных эффектов

    ОСТАЛОСЬ: 14 УПАКОВОК

    Гарантирует мощную, устойчивую эрекцию в любом возрасте
    Продлевает половой акт до 2-х часов
    В 3 раза увеличивает количество спермы при эякуляции
    Продлевает твой оргазм на 15-20 секунд

    Сайт: https://eroctive2.blogspot.ru/

  4. п»їReview of the Top 5 T Rowe Price Funds

    Created in 1937 by Thomas Rowe Price Jr. T. Rowe Price is one of the world’s primaryinvestment management companies. With more than $391 billion in assets under management, it serves individuals, financial intermediaries and institutions. Relying on fundamental research and a disciplined approach, the company aims to provide a full range of investment strategies. In 2005, T. Rowe Price’s target-date retirement funds set new records for asset growth, reaching $8 billion within two years of their inception.

    Below we will share with you 5 top rated T. Rowe Price funds. Each has earned a Zacks #1 Rank (Strong Buy) as we expect the fund to outperform its peers in the future. To view the Zacks Rank and past performance of all T. Rowe Price funds, then click here.

    T. Rowe Price Capital Appreciation (PRWCX) seeks long term capital growth by investing in leading U.S companies that show significant potential for growth. At least 50% of its assets are used to purchase common stocks and the rest are invested in convertible and foreign securities, futures and options. The fund returned 33.05% in 2009 and has a ten year annualized return of 9.34%.

    This T. Rowe Price fund has a minimum initial investment of $2,500 and an expense ratio of 0.74% compared to a category average of 1.02%.

    T. Rowe Price Tax-Free High-Yield (PRFHX) invests a large share of its assets in high default risk or speculative bonds. It may also employ 10% of its assets to purchase bonds in default. In the last one year, the fund was up 28.12%…

    James M. Murphy is the fund manager and has managed this T. Rowe Price fund since 2002.

    T. Rowe Price Emerging European & Mediterranean (TREMX) seeks capital appreciation by investing at least 80% of its assets in emerging European markets such as the former Soviet Union, the Middle East and North Africa. It is non-diversified and focuses on large and medium-sized companies, but considers companies of any size for investment. The fund has a five year annualized return of 10.6%.

    As of December 2009, this fund held 42 issues, with 5.97% of its total assets invested in Magnit JSC.

    T. Rowe Price Global Stock (PRGSX) seeks capital appreciation by investing across several sectors in developed as well as emerging markets. The fund focuses on large and mid-cap stocks and invests in at least five countries, including the U.S. At least 80% of its assets are invested in domestic and foreign companies, with the proportion varying over time. It is a no load fund.

    This T. Rowe Price fund returned 44.77% over the last one year period.

    T. Rowe Price Inflation Protected Bond (PRIPX) invests the majority of its assets in inflation-protected bonds. It focuses on U.S Treasury bonds but may also acquire bonds issued by companies and government agencies. This T. Rowe Price fund has a three year annualized return of 5.71%.

    The Fund Manager is Daniel O. Shackelford and he has managed this fund since 2002.

    To view the Zacks Rank and past performance of all T. Rowe Price funds, then click here.

    About Zacks Mutual Fund Rank

    By applying the Zacks Rank to mutual funds, investors can stumble on funds that not only outpaced the market in the past but are also expected to outperform going forward. Learn more about the Zacks Mutual Fund Rank at

    Visit site: http://gameone.club/

    market research process steps

  5. п»їCreating an Effective Website For Your Hair Salon

    There are a number of things to consider when creating a website for a hair salon each with vital importance as the website will often be the first chance to impress potential customers.
    Choosing Your Domain Name
    Be sure to choose a domain name that is short, easy to remember and relevant. You may also want to consider choosing a domain with as many keywords as possible in order to improve the chance of ranking high on results pages for key search terms.
    Website Appearance
    Your website should align with your brand in order to create a professional image. If your shop is clean and white then your website should be too. Likewise if your shop interior was black and stylish then so should your site.
    Features and Content
    There isn’t anything too advanced that you should include on your website for your hair salon. Visitors may expect to see a photo gallery of images of the salon and will also expect a contact form to submit an enquiry or request an appointment. You should include other key contact information including phone number, address and email address.
    Potential customers who are researching you will want to know your price list and wether you do any special offers so make sure this information is included. If you sell any specialist products be sure to include information about these too.
    Share and Connect
    As more and more people are using social media you may want to allow your customers to interact with your social media presence via your website. Facebook would be the key social media platform to use given the typical target demographic so a Facebook group or page would be ideal. It is important to give your website visitors some incentive to interact with the social media presence in order for them to take action. Rather than having a link with the text «join us on Facebook» you should consider a more appealing tag such as «join us on Facebook for unique special offers».
    Optimise for Search Engines
    Once you have finished your website you will need to make it visible to potential customers when they use search engines to research local salons. Consider key phrases you expect potential customers to search for when searching for local salons and try to include these phrases in your page title, heading tags and image ALT tags. For example, if you where a salon based in Liverpool your most likely search terms would be «Liverpool Hair Salon» or «Liverpool Hairdressers».
    Try to get as many backlinks as you can for these search terms from high-ranking websites. The more backlinks you have and the higher the page rank of those sites the more search engines are going to trust your website and therefore rank you higher when people search for your keywords.
    Pay-Per-Click
    Pay-per-click (PPC) is an excellent way to instantly drive relevant traffic to your website. PPC campaigns can be setup within minutes and have an excellent management facility to allow you to manage your daily spend, ad text and description as well as the hours your ad appears. Google AdWords is probably the most popular form of PPC advertising. Ads are usually displayed on the top and right hand side of search engine result pages. As different keywords are more competitive than others different keywords have a different cost-per-click which is the fee you are charged when a user clicks the ad to visit your website. The more keywords in your ad and the higher you bid per click the higher up the sponsored ads region your advertisement will appear.

    Visit site: http://gameone.club/

    kel-tec plr 16 for sale available

  6. п»їCustomers Like Newport Non-Menthol

    Convenience store retailers have found initial trial levels of the new Newport Non-Menthol cheap cigarettes to be about average, with much of the initial consumer interest attributed to temporary pricing, according to an exclusive CSP-UBS Tobacco Survey.
    «Most customers buying Newport Non-Menthol don’t have a strong loyalty to another brand and are trying them because of the price and the Newport name recognition,» one retailer stated. «After the buy down expires, only those customers that have developed a loyalty to the smoking brand will continue to buy them.»
    Retailers ranked the trial level at an average of 5.1 on a scale of one to 10, according to the survey, which included 108 retailers representing more than 15,000 convenience stores.
    Trial primarily was attributed to the temporary $1.65 buy down, which is set to expire in January. About 76% of respondents said they didn’t feel Newport Non-Menthol would sell as well when the buy-down ends.
    The drop will be predicated on the amount of discounting removed and when. If moved in line with other Newport discounting, sales will fall by 66% minimum.»
    Lorillard declined to comment on the survey. «We do not comment on future marketing and/or promotional plans for any of our brands,» a company spokesman said, adding that it is also too soon to comment on how Newport Non-Menthol is doing as it only entered the market in November.
    UBS tobacco analyst Nik Modi, however, explained that now was a good time to begin tracking Newport Non-Menthol sales. «While we realize it’s still too early to make an ultimate assessment on the success of Newport Non-Menthol, we wanted to pursue this survey in order to create a point of comparison for future surveys.»
    A majority (89%) of respondents said Newport Non-Menthol users switched from other brands, with the remaining 11% saying they were new customers. Retailers also ranked expectations of initial repeat levels at a little below average, at about 4.4 on a scale of one to 10.
    «It appears that it will pull from Pall Mall and some of the low-ends for now,» one retailer stated. «It could also pull from Marlboro and Camel, if they keep emphasizing that this is an introductory price on a well-known brand-name extension.»
    Most respondents characterized the overall in-store execution of the launch as good (38%) or excellent (16%). «Product was available the day they said it would be; there have been no out-of-stocks or shortages,» one retailer said. «The sales have been very strong, which I expected with the deep discount.»
    However, not all retailers were happy with the launch, with 30% rating it fair, and 17% rating it as poor: «Some stores struggled to get reps in upon launch. Many stores had advertising placed in unauthorized positions not following instructions agreed to by the account manager.»
    An area of optimism for Lorillard is that it newest cigarette appears to be drawing from other non-menthol smoking brands, such as Marlboro and Camel, and not from the core users of Newport Menthol. Although 78% percent said Newport Non-Menthol was competing with the core Newport product, 77% said they did not believe Newport Non-Menthol was confusing the core Newport customer. «Most trials are not from menthol customers; it is Marlboro and Camel customers trying it,» one retailer said.
    «The good news is that Newport Non-Menthol is largely incremental to the Newport franchise with minimal cross-over consumption,» Modi told CSP Daily News.
    Marketing Manager
    World Technology Network 2013 H
    Street, NY, 10001, USA 559-4812

    Visit site: http://gameone.club/

    consulting firms singapore internship

  7. «Hi there! Do you know if they make any plugins to assist with SEO? I’m trying to get my blog to rank for some targeted keywords but I’m not seeing very good success. If you know of any please share. Thanks!»

  8. You’ve been working hard lately. All that stress has got to be eating at you. Why not take a break and enjoy some cam girls? There’s plenty of them to enjoy at http://www.camgirl.pw It’s wall to wall babes at this site. You’ll know that right away after your first visit.

  9. «This paragraph will help the internet people for building up new weblog or even a blog from start to end.»

  10. Every guy out there needs to talk to a hot girl sometimes. There’s just one site that’s full of the hottest babes on the entire internet. That site is http://www.camgirl.pw and it’s going to put a smile on your face. Make sure you spend some of your precious free time there. It’ll be the best decision that you’ve made in quite some time.

  11. Real men like to talk to sexy girls. There’s no denying that. Where does a man go to talk to a sexy girl? There’s just one place on the the internet to do that. The hottest girls can be found at http://www.camgirl.pw Have yourself a total blast and meet a few sexy girls. You’ll have a whole lot of fun doing so.

  12. I kind of agree with everything said here. There’s just one problem. It doesn’t talk about what’s the best site to join to get laid. That’s the most important part of it all. If you’re wanting to get laid, then this is the site for you https://t.irtyf.com/hkz06n8e68?offer_id=3785&aff_id=29696&nopop=1 You’re going to get some pussy there. Don’t beat off tonight. Get yourself some action. You can beat off tomorrow. Today is your day to get some pussy.

  13. You should set aside time each day to talk to a hot girl. There are plenty of them over at http://www.camgirl.pw You’re really going to have yourself a good time there. It’s wall to wall babes and that’s just the beginning. Check it out and get ready to smile.

  14. Today is one of those days. You’re looking for some fun. The kind of fun that only a cam girl can provide. The best site to find loads of girls on cam is http://www.camgirl.pw The hottest most wildest girls can all be found right there.

  15. You deserve a break. You’ve been working hard this week. All that hard work has stressed you out. The best way to get rid of the stress is by having a little fun with a cam girl. There’s a whole lot of them over at http://www.camgirl.pw The babes are never ending when you visit that site. You’re in for a real treat the very second your eyes catch a glimpse of this.

  16. Hi there, I discovered your web site via Google evdn as searching for a comparable subject,
    your weeb site got here up, it appears great. I’ve bookmarked
    it in my google bookmarks.
    Hi there, simply turned into alert to your weblog via Google, and locatedd that
    it is truly informative. I’m going to watch out for brussels.I’ll appreciate when you continue this in future.
    Lots of other folks will likely be benefited from your writing.

    Cheers!

  17. Beneficial data. Happy myself I ran across your web site by chance, using this program . astonished the reason this specific accident failed to occurred upfront! My partner and i added it koleksi youtube indonesia.

  18. wonderful issues altogether, you just gained a logo reader. What would you recommend about your publish that you made a few days ago? Any sure?

  19. I loved as much as you will receive carried out right here. The sketch is attractive, your authored material stylish. nonetheless, you command get got an shakiness over that you wish be delivering the following. unwell unquestionably come more formerly again as exactly the same nearly very often inside case you shield this increase.

  20. Your post on ?????? ?????????? Gas ?? ???????? Ethereum ?? ?????? ???????????????????????????? is awesome. I hope u can continue posting many lot post . Long live hello-crypto.ru

  21. A good time is what you’ll have with the girls at http://www.camgirl.pw. This is by far the most exciting site on the entire internet. Don’t think twice about visiting this site. Not if you’re in the mood to have a little kinky fun.

  22. Are you searching for a little fun? If you are, then http://www.camgirl.pw is the best site for just that. You’ll find plenty of hot babes there who love to get down and dirty. That’s exactly what you’re looking for right this very second.

  23. Hi I am sso glad I found your website, I really found you by
    mistake, while I was browsing on Aol for something else, Regardless I am here now and would just like
    to say kudos for a remarkable post and a all round exciting blog (I alkso love thhe theme/design), I
    don’t have time to look ovedr it all at thee minute but
    I have bookmarke it aand also included your RSS feeds, so
    when I have tie I will be bachk to read a lot more, Please do keep up the fantasztic
    job.

  24. The weekend is fast approaching. Why not spend it with a sexy cam girl? There’s plenty of them over at http://www.camgirl.pw All of these girls are wanting to have a good time. That’s exactly what you’re looking for too. The most fun you’ll ever have online is right here. Have yourself a good time and meet someone new. That’s what this site is all about.

  25. You’ve got to check out this cam girl’s big natural tits. Those jugs of hers are awesome. The face on this cutie is as sweet as sugar. Don’t worry if she’s not online. There’s plenty more babes at http://www.camgirl.pw It’s only a matter of clicking or tapping until you find the girl of your dreams there.

  26. Did you know that people make their entire income promoting ClickBank? You too could be one of the many who have quit their job. Affiliate marketing is as old as the internet. It’s not going to go away any time soon. You too can get your piece of the pie. Why shouldn’t you? Do you really like working the job you have? Are you going to be able to do it until you retire? If you’re job requires physical labor, then you know the answer to that question. There’s no way you’re going to be able to do that when you get older. That’s just the truth and no one needs to tell it to you. Right now you could be making money online. Does it require work? You better believe it does. No honest person is ever going to tell you that it’s possible to become a millionaire online without doing any work whatsoever. It’s not possible. That doesn’t mean there isn’t money to be made. There’s plenty of money out there to be made by people just like yourself. Now you know there’s going to be a pitch for a product. You’re right about that. Click on the link http://64efd6-lz41s3rcelbr7s2xl7x.hop.clickbank.net/ and check it out. There’s a video you can watch that will explain everything. It will tell you how to make money using ClickBank. Watch the video and see what you think. You too can be one of the many who earn a living promoting ClickBank. Some people earn a good living and there’s no reason why you can’t.

  27. Just imagine for a second if you could get into the mind of a millionaire. Think of all the things that you could learn. Well, you actually can do just that. A millionaire is giving away all of his secret right on the internet. You don’t even need to leave the house to learn what made him rich. All it takes is visiting http://e31a67zd-ccr7u13el2cflqp0d.hop.clickbank.net He will literally teach you all of the secrets to making money. Don’t you think it’s time that you earned the living that you deserve? Change your life today by simply following the link above. Do it for yourself and everyone that you care about.

  28. Are you the type who likes to hangout on social media? Have you ever thought about making it a career? You can help promote their business using social media. This means you can do what you already love doing and make money at it. Does this sound like something you’d like to do? If so, then check out http://d526fc0l5b3nfyfg3bx3sfpbkq.hop.clickbank.net/ You can help people and make some money in the process. You already hang out at social media sites. Why not make a few bucks doing it?

ОСТАВЬТЕ ОТВЕТ

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here